External validity

How Generalizable are Findings from Police Surveys? A Review of Multi-Agency Studies

Policing scholars frequently use surveys to understand officer attitudes and behavioral intentions. Yet, it is difficult to gain access to one - let alone multiple - agencies. Thus, officer surveys often reflect views in a single department, making …

A Multi-Site Study of Firearms Displays by Police at Use of Force Incidents

We model the factors associated with officers displaying their firearms in 4 agencies.